Objective: To compare differences in gray matter volumes, white matter and subcortical gray matter hyperintensities, neuropsychological factors, and treatment outcome between early- and late-onset late-life depressed (LLD) subjects. Methods: We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized, controlled trial at the outpatient clinics at Washington University and Duke University on 126 subjects, aged 60 years or older, who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for major depression, scored 20 or more on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and received neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were excluded for cognitive impairment or severe medical disorders. After 12 weeks of sertraline treatment, subjects’ MADRS scores over time and neuropsychological factors were studied. Results: Left anterior cingulate thickness was significantly smaller in the late-onset depressed group than in the early-onset LLD subjects. The late-onset group also had more hyperintensities than the early-onset LLD subjects. No differences were found in neuropsychological factor scores or treatment outcome between early-onset and late-onset LLD subjects. Conclusion: Age at onset of depressive symptoms in LLD subjects are associated with differences in cortical thickness and white matter and subcortical gray matter hyperintensities, but age at onset did not affect neuropsychological factors or treatment outcome. © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.