The potential relationship between chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and head injuries such as blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important area of study, particularly for military and contact sports populations, yet little is known about this relationship. To address this topic, the Department of Defense (DoD) Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-The-Science Meeting, which brought together subject matter experts from the DoD, other federal agencies, academia, industry, foreign allies, and the sports community. Over the course of the meeting, this community of experts reached a consensus regarding the current body of knowledge and the future of the field. The overarching finding was that there is insufficient existing scientific evidence to link blast-related TBI with CTE. The meeting’s Expert Panel also agreed on 13 additional findings describing research and knowledge gaps, clinical gaps, and research opportunities that, if addressed with focused effort, would further the understanding of the relationship between blast-related TBI and CTE. To this end, the Expert Panel also developed six recommendations for advancing research, each with short-and long-Term goals. Among the six recommendations, the Expert Panel identified the first four as highest priority for addressing pressing research needs. These four high-priority recommendations include, in order of priority: (1) more collection and study of clinical neuropathology samples, (2) standardization of clinical diagnostic criteria, (3) development of clinically appropriate and standardized animal models, and (4) development of noninvasive serial assessment strategies (i.e., imaging or biospecimen biomarkers). © Copyright 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017.