Deficits in Schwann cell-mediated remyelination impair functional restoration after nerve damage, contributing to peripheral neuropathies. The mechanisms mediating block of remyelination remain elusive. Here, through small-molecule screening focusing on epigenetic modulators, we identified histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3; a histone-modifying enzyme) as a potent inhibitor of peripheral myelinogenesis. Inhibition of HDAC3 enhanced myelin growth and regeneration and improved functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury in mice. HDAC3 antagonizes the myelinogenic neuregulin-PI3K-AKT signaling axis. Moreover, genome-wide profiling analyses revealed that HDAC3 represses promyelinating programs through epigenetic silencing while coordinating with p300 histone acetyltransferase to activate myelination-inhibitory programs that include the HIPPO signaling effector TEAD4 to inhibit myelin growth. Schwann cell-specific deletion of either Hdac3 or Tead4 in mice resulted in an elevation of myelin thickness in sciatic nerves. Thus, our findings identify the HDAC3-TEAD4 network as a dual-function switch of cell-intrinsic inhibitory machinery that counters myelinogenic signals and maintains peripheral myelin homeostasis, highlighting the therapeutic potential of transient HDAC3 inhibition for improving peripheral myelin repair. © 2018 Nature America, Inc., part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.