Diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) combines discrete anisotropic diffusion tensors and the spectrum of isotropic diffusion tensors to model the underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) pathologies. We used clinical MS subtypes as a surrogate of underlying pathologies to assess DBSI as a biomarker of pathology in 55 individuals with MS. Restricted isotropic fraction (reflecting cellularity) and fiber fraction (representing apparent axonal density) were the most important DBSI metrics to classify MS using brain white matter lesions. These DBSI metrics outperformed lesion volume. When analyzing the normal-appearing corpus callosum, the most significant DBSI metrics were fiber fraction, radial diffusivity (reflecting myelination), and nonrestricted isotropic fraction (representing edema). This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the ability of DBSI as a potential noninvasive biomarker of MS neuropathology. © 2019 The Authors. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc on behalf of American Neurological Association.