Diagnostic challenges exist for differentiating HIV dementia from Alzheimer disease (AD) in older HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals. Similar abnormalities in brain amyloid-beta42 (Alphabeta42) metabolism may be involved in HIV-associated neuropathology and AD. We evaluated the amyloid-binding agent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB), a biomarker for Alphabeta42 deposition, in cognitively unimpaired HIV+ (n = 10) participants and matched community controls without dementia (n = 20).
In this case-control study, all participants had an (11)C-PiB scan within 2 years of concomitant CSF studies and neuropsychometric testing. Statistical differences between HIV+ and community controls for demographic and clinical values were assessed by chi(2) tests. Participants were further divided into either low (<500 pg/mL) or normal (>or=500 pg/mL) CSF Alphabeta42 groups with Student t tests performed to determine if regional differences in fibrillar amyloid plaque deposition varied with CSF Alphabeta42.
Regardless of CSF Alphabeta42 level, none of the HIV+ participants had fibrillar amyloid plaques as assessed by increased (11)C-PiB mean cortical binding potential (MCBP) or binding potential within 4 cortical regions. In contrast, some community controls with low CSF Alphabeta42 (<500 pg/mL) had high (11)C-PiB MCBP with elevated binding potentials (>0.18 arbitrary units) within cortical regions.
Cognitively unimpaired HIV+ participants, even with low CSF Alphabeta42 (<500 pg/mL), do not have (11)C-PiB parameters suggesting brain fibrillar amyloid deposition. The dissimilarity between unimpaired HIV+ and preclinical AD may reflect differences in Abeta42 production and/or formation of diffuse plaques. Future longitudinal studies of HIV+ participants with low CSF Abeta42 and normal (11)C-PiB are required.