We investigated the interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and aging and their effects on brain function demands by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A multiple-regression model was used to study the association and interaction between fMRI measures, HIV serostatus, and age for 26 HIV-infected subjects and 25 seronegative subjects. Although HIV serostatus and age independently affected fMRI measures, no interaction occurred. Functional brain demands in HIV-positive subjects were equivalent to those of HIV-negative subjects who were 15-20 years older. Frailty parallels between HIV infection and aging could result from continued immunological challenges depleting resources and triggering increased metabolic demands. In the future, fMRI could be a noninvasive biomarker to assess HIV infection in the brain.