The recent invention of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy brings more than an order of magnitude gain in the spatial resolution of light microscopy. New opportunities keep emerging with the multicolor, three-dimensional, and live imaging functionalities gained in the past three years. The power of this technology has been demonstrated by imaging the organization of organelles and molecular complexes, with recent applications increasingly showing its potential in neurobiology. These developments are exemplified by the visualization of components inside dendritic spines to fine morphologies of neurons. In combination with correlative electron microscopy, functional imaging, and electrical/optogenetic stimulation tools, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has the potential to provide further insights ranging from the molecular details of neurons up to the functional mechanisms of neuronal circuits.