Comparative analysis can provide important insights into complex biological systems. As demonstrated in the accompanying paper, translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) permits comprehensive studies of translated mRNAs in genetically defined cell populations after physiological perturbations. To establish the generality of this approach, we present translational profiles for 24 CNS cell populations and identify known cell-specific and enriched transcripts for each population. We report thousands of cell-specific mRNAs that were not detected in whole-tissue microarray studies and provide examples that demonstrate the benefits deriving from comparative analysis. To provide a foundation for further biological and in silico studies, we provide a resource of 16 transgenic mouse lines, their corresponding anatomic characterization, and translational profiles for cell types from a variety of central nervous system structures. This resource will enable a wide spectrum of molecular and mechanistic studies of both well-known and previously uncharacterized neural cell populations.